2016年3月24日 星期四

四個準時結束工作而不感到罪惡感的訣竅 ( 英文翻譯 時間管理 )

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以下是本人非專業翻譯XD:

4 Ways to Leave Work On Time Without Feeling Guilty

四個準時結束工作而不感到罪惡感的訣竅


by March 17, 2016Productivity

Simply put, working long hours is bad for your health and bad for your work.
簡單的說,工作超時對你的健康以及工作本身都有著不良影響。

It may not feel like it when 6pm, 7pm, or even 9pm rolls around and you’re still at the office, but over time those extra hours build up into increased risk of cardiovascular disease, generally poor health, and fatigue
當你在晚上六點、七點,甚至九點以後都還在辦公室的時候,也許當下並沒有明顯感受,但是這些超額工作時數,將累積成為健康上的風險,例如心血管疾病、基本體能低落、長期過勞。

One study carried out across three continents found “those who work more than 55 hours a week have a 33% increased risk of stroke compared with those who work a 35- to 40-hour week”. Overworked employees were also found to have a 13% increased risk of coronary heart disease.
調查對象跨越三大洲的一個研究指出,「每週工作超過55小時的人,將比每週工作35~40小時的人,多出33%中風的可能性。」。超時工作者發生冠狀動脈相關疾病的可能性,也被發現高出13%。

While this study doesn’t prove direct cause-and-effect, the fact that there’s such a high correlation between increased health risks and overworking should give us pause.
即使此研究並未包含直接因果關連的證明,但健康風險與超時工作兩個因素之間的高度相關性,這個事實已經足夠讓我們暫停腳步了。

And it’s not just inconvenient to work extra hours; it’s actually for your productivity. 
工作超時不僅帶來上述危害,更關鍵的是對你的生產力造成的影響。

Studies have shown that, beyond a certain point, working more hours results in diminishing returns—that is, each additional hour we put in at the office is less productive than the last. 
研究已經表明,持續工作超過一定時數之後,再繼續工作下去將會產生「報酬遞減」現象 -- 意為當我們每再繼續上班一小時,生產力將會比前一個小時更低。

One study of British factory workers during World War II found that 49 hours was the point where diminishing returns kicked in. And other studies have found that you spend your time at work correlates more closely to your output than how many hours you put in.
以二次大戰期間英國工廠工人作為對象的一個研究指出,49小時的工時,是開始產生報酬遞減現象的關鍵點。

Despite the evidence that long work hours accomplish very little, our tendency to work far beyond the 40-hour workweek shows no sign of stopping, at least not in the US. 
儘管有相關證據表明長時間工作帶來的低回報,但每週工作遠遠超過40小時的常見現象,仍看不到終止的可能,至少在美國如此。

According to the 2013 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Better Life Index, the US ranks 9th among 34 OECD countries for the number of people working long hours.
根據2013年經濟合作暨發展組織(OECD)的良好生活指標,顯示美國在34個OECD國家中的超時工作量排行第9。

We live in a society that equates busyness for importance and long work hours with commitment to our jobs. Meanwhile, the boundaries between work and life are becoming more and more blurred with the trend toward flexible work schedules, location-independent jobs, and the ability to carry our work around in our pockets wherever we go. 
我們目前的社會普遍認為,為工作付出奉獻,就是要越忙越好、工作越久越好。同時,相關趨勢例如彈性工時、非定點上班、無論去到哪裡都能行動上班的能力,也讓工作與生活的界線越來越模糊了。

Ironically, the flexibility that allows us to be the masters of our own schedules also allows us to never fully turn off, even when it’s in our best interest to do so.  
諷刺的是,當我們能彈性的掌控安排自己的行程,也就更找不到理由完全停歇下來,即使那是我們最想要的。

When we don’t contain our work hours, we sacrifice the time we need for the activities that replenish our energy stores. 
當我們無法控制工作時數,犧牲的就是那些我們用來恢復精力所需的時間。

Things like exercise, family dinners, meeting up with friends, and even spending time in nature are imperative for long-term mental and physical health, and, ultimately, our productivity.
包括:運動、回家吃晚餐、與朋友聚會、以及享受大自然,這類迫切性需要,都會對長期的心理與生理健康、終究也會對生產力,帶來重大影響。

So how can you get out of the office on time and avoid the health risks of overworking? Well, if your boss requires long hours you might be in a bind. But if you’re holding yourself back by staying at work well past knock-off time, it’s time to look at you feel you need to work long hours, and how to overcome that.
所以,你該如何準時下班以避免超時工作帶來的健康風險呢?好吧,萬一是老闆要求加班,那就實在是束手無策。但,如果是「你逼著自己」待在工作上遠遠超過該滾蛋的時間,現在就開始思考,為何你認為自己應該長時間工作,然後設法克服這個問題吧。

Whether it’s proving your commitment, trying to get more done, or just feeling guilty about leaving “early”, these four approaches can help you start getting out of the office at a reasonable hour, improving your health productivity at the same time.
無論是因為要證明你對工作的付出貢獻、或想多做一些事、或只是單純對早早下班有罪惡感,這四個方法都能夠幫助你在合理的時刻離開辦公室,同樣也因此改善你的健康與生產力。


1. Build an end-of-day routine 建立一個每日結束慣例活動


For about half of 2015 I struggled to get up early. I wanted to be a morning person, getting hours of work done before lunch, but I just couldn’t drag myself out of bed before 8am… and often much later.
2015年裡我有一半時間都在掙扎著想要早起。我想成為一個晨型人,把工作在午餐前結束,但是我就是無法在早上八點前把自己拖下床...通常是更晚才起床。

One of the things that helped me finally crack this habit was developing a morning routine. When I get out of bed, I start a cascade of events that run, one after another, to keep me awake and get me ready for the day. Right now that means making coffee, practicing French, reading, doing a few push-ups, then jumping in the shower. Each event kicks off the next one, and I don’t have to think about whether I’ll go back to bed or not.
後來有一件事情幫助我打破了這個陋習,那就是建立一個早晨慣例活動。當我起床後,就開始強度漸進的跑步,一段又一段,這讓我清醒過來面對這一天。直到如今,這個活動已經演變成為煮咖啡、練習法語、閱讀、做幾個伏地挺身、然後邊淋浴邊跳躍。每一個活動,都成為了下一個活動的序幕,也因此我不需再去考慮是否要躺回去睡個覺。

The same process that gets me out of bed can help you get out of the office. You might have heard of people with wind-down routines to help them get ready for bed and keep a regular sleeping schedule. In the same way, you can wind-down at a regular time every day to help you get out of the office on time.
幫助我順利起床的這種方式,也可以運用來幫助你離開辦公室。你可能聽過有些人擁有晚安慣例活動,用來幫助順利入眠以保持規律作息。同樣道理,你也可以在每天的固定時間,來個晚安慣例活動以幫助你準時下班離開。

The best thing about routines is they can help you get motivated when you don’t feel like it. Routines let you fall back on your everyday habits to make sure you’re always leaving the office on time (in this case), without having to rely on willpower or memory.
擁有慣例活動的最大好處是,能夠在你沒勁的時候給你動力。只要依靠這項變成你的每日固定習慣的活動,就可以確保你總能準時離開辦公室(在一般情況下),而不用依靠意志力或記憶力。

According to James Clear, getting started produces momentum that helps you to keep going—you need to get started before you’re motivated. Motivation will follow. A routine can help you with the getting started part: if you tidy your desk, close your inbox, and plan for tomorrow at the same time every day, this routine will give you the momentum to head out the door on time without you trying to do so. As Charles Duhigg, author of The Power of Habit , “Routine basically gives us the mental freedom to think about what’s actually important”.
James Clear說,一旦開始,就會產生繼續保持前進的動力 -- 你需要在感覺有衝勁之前就先開始做。衝勁之後會跟上來的。慣例活動能夠幫助你開始:假如你每天在同樣的時間都會清理桌子、關上收件夾、規劃明天的行程,這個慣例就會帶給你準時奔向門口的衝勁,而不需要「努力」才能做到。也如同「The Power of Habit」的作者Charles Duhigg所說,「基本上來說,慣例給我們能去思考何謂真正重要事物的心靈自由。」

Routines aren’t just good for getting things done. Research has shown routine and order can make our lives feel more meaningful. One study showed people who did the same things every day found life more meaningful than those who didn’t have consistent routines.
慣例不只有助於完成目標。研究顯示,慣例與命令可以讓我們的生命感到更有意義。另一個研究也發現,每天進行相同事情的人,比起沒有長期持續性慣例的人,感覺生活更有意義。

We’ve written before about the things successful people incorporate into their end of the day routine to leave work on time and set themselves up to start the next day off right:
以下是一些被成功人士採納成為每日結束慣例的事情,用以幫助他們按時下班、並且準備好開啟美好的明天: 

  • Tidy your desk, save everything you’re working on, and close out of all your tabs and windows. 清理桌子,將進行中的工作都存檔,並關上所有分頁與視窗。
  • Review your completed tasks at the end of each day. 在每天結束時,回顧已經完成的任務。
  • Plan tomorrow’s to-do list. 安排明日應做事項清單。
  • Leave open just the one tab you need to finish your Most Important Task in the morning. 只將你明天早上要進行的最重要任務的分頁畫面開著留下。
  • Leave a quick-win to do first thing tomorrow. 安排一個能輕鬆產生高回報的任務作為明天第一件事。
  • Break down the tasks you’ve been avoiding into smaller, more manageable ones. 將想逃避的任務分解成為更小的、更能掌控的任務。


2. Set a hard finish time 設定強制結束時間


One of the easiest ways to stay at work too late is to have no real “go home” time. When I did shift work, if my shift ended at 5pm, you can bet I was watching the clock from 4:55. But with flexible schedules and more work to do than we can keep up with, it’s all-too-easy to work beyond what’s healthy.
要工作超時的最簡單方式,就是沒有真正的「回家」時間。當我從事排班工作的時候,假如排班是到下午五點,你可以輕易猜到,我在4:55就已經盯著時鐘了。但當改成彈性工作時間之後,只要工作量超過所能負荷,也就很容易加班直到超過健康負荷。

One way to make this work is to schedule something for immediately after your knock-off time. Having an appointment you need to go to will force you to get out the door, and the more often you do this, the more you’ll get used to structuring your day to leave on time.
安排一個「緊接」著下班時間的行程將會有幫助。一個必需參與的約會將逼迫你走出大門,而且當你越常如此做,你就將會越習慣去建構一個準時離開的一天。

This is the method I used to take back my afternoons from the grip of procrastination. Working from home had left me with so much flexibility that I struggled to get anything done after lunch, knowing I could work into the night to meet a deadline if need be. This was obviously a bad strategy—especially so since I’m a morning lark, and don’t work at my best in the evenings.
用這個方法,我從拖延症手中搶回了午後時光。在家工作讓我擁有高度彈性的時間安排,也造成我把每件事情都拖延到午餐後才完成,因為我知道,萬一有需要,我還能夠工作到深夜以趕上截止時間。這明顯是個糟糕的策略 -- 特別當我是個早鳥,在下午工作並非我的最佳狀態。

This is not so unusual. It stems from a phenomenon known as Parkinson’s law, which says that “work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion”. In other words, your work will take as much time as you have to complete it. If you only have two hours, you’ll get it done in two hours. If you have all day, it’ll take you all day.
這種狀況並不少見。根據「帕金森定理」(Parkinson's law):「在工作能夠完成的時限內,工作量會一直增加,直到所有可用時間都被填充為止。」換句話說,工作所花費的時長,將等於你能夠用來完成的時長。如果只有兩個小時可用,你就會在兩個小時內做完。假如你有一整天的時間可用,工作就會花掉你一整天。

I finally made my afternoons productive again by setting a hard cut-off time for my work day to end, scheduling an event at that time or shortly after. Sometimes that would be dinner with a friend or going out to an event. Most days it was simply a scheduled appointment to go for a run on my treadmill. I kept that appointment, which pushed me to get all the day’s work done by my cut-off time.
後來,因為在每個工作日的尾聲設定了一個強制截止時間,並且在截止時間上或緊接不久後,安排一項活動,我的下午再度變得有意義了。有時候可能是跟朋友晚餐或外出參加活動。大多數日子裡,只是簡單的安排在跑步機上跑步。當我安排了活動,就會促使我將今天所有工作在截止時間前完成。

Here’s what I wrote about this earlier:
以下是我以前寫過的相關內容:

When I’ve tried this without an event like exercise or dinner at 5:30, it doesn’t work as well. The deadline becomes elastic and I end up working longer—or just thinking I can, which means I don’t get as much done.
我之前嘗試這個作法的時候,如果沒有安排之後的活動,例如運動或5:30的晚餐,就不會有效果。截止時間會變得彈性,到最後我反而工作更久 -- 或只是自認可以工作更久,意即我其實並沒有完成多少工作。

It’s that appointment I “must keep” that really makes this approach work.
是那個「必需遵守」的約會讓這個方式真正產生效果。

I’ll often look at the clock around 3 p.m. and realize I’ve been wasting time since lunch, but realizing that there are only two and half hours remaining in my work day, I kick back into gear.
我將會在下午三點左右就一直看時間,發現從午餐後到現在的時間都浪費掉了,同時覺悟今天上班時間只剩下兩個半小時,於是上緊發條努力奮鬥。

Sean Ogle found the same thing when he tried to stop his workday at noon:
Sean Ogle也有相似的感想,當他試著將工作在下午截止:

[I] gave myself permission to stop working at noon. For the first week, this was nearly impossible, but as I started scheduling things early in the afternoon, the need to be more productive in the morning became greater.
「我」允許我自己在下午將工作截止。在第一週,這幾乎是不可能的任務,但當我開始提早規劃下午的行程時,在早上要更有生產力這件事,就變得更重要。

Sean scheduled sport, went to festivals, and set up lunch and coffee dates with friends to help him stick to that deadline.
Sean 安排了運動、參加慶典、與朋友進行午餐與咖啡約會,這些事幫助了他去堅守截止時間。

Here are some ideas for events you can schedule after work:
這裡提供一些點子,關於你可以安排在工作之後的活動:

  • Meet a friend or your spouse for dinner. 跟朋友或伴侶相約晚餐。
  • Agree to be home for dinner at a particular time. 說好在特定時間回到家吃晚餐。
  • Go to the gym or outside for exercise after work (meet a friend for a workout if that helps you stick to your plan). 在工作後去健身房或外出運動(跟朋友一起鍛鍊,假如這有助於你遵照計畫)。
  • Book a haircut or dentist appointment after work. 預約下班後的剪髮或牙醫治療。
  • Sign up for a class or team sport. 報名課程或團隊運動。
Make sure you put these into your calendar, and treat them as events you need to be on time for. This urgency will force you to be ready to go on time.
記得寫到行事曆中,並以必需準時到達的心態認真對待這些活動。時間的迫切性將會讓你逼迫自己能夠準時到達。

3. Plan your day more realistically 更現實地去計畫你的一天


When your to-do list isn’t complete, it’s easy to stay at work for longer than you’d like to. It might be unhealthy, but we’re slaves to our task lists and can’t bear to admit we didn’t get through everything today.
如果待辦清單事項尚未全部完成,很可能就會留下來工作到比原本預計更晚。這不利健康,但我們是任務清單的奴隸,不能忍受我們沒有在今天處理完每件事的事實。

If this sounds like you, there’s a simple (though not necessarily easy) way to curb this habit. It’s all about you plan your to-do list each day.
假如以上情況很像是你,這裡有個簡單的(但是不一定是容易的)方式來節制這種習慣性。一切重點只在於,你如何規劃你每日的待辦清單。

Planning more than you can get done is a surefire way to set yourself up for to-do list failure. We so often underestimate how long tasks will take, and how much we’ll be interrupted throughout the day. And we overestimate how much we can get done.
如果安排太多事情,超出力所能及,必然導致待辦清單的規劃失敗。我們經常低估大型任務將會花費的時間、我們一天中會被打斷多少次。並且高估了能做到多少。

This problem with planning, officially known as the planning fallacy, happens to the best of us. The Sydney Opera House was opened 10 years later than originally estimated and had to be scaled back from the initial plans just to get it finished. It also cost $102 million dollars to build, despite plans to complete it for just $7 million.
這種規劃上的狀況,正式稱呼為「Planning fallacy(規劃謬誤)」,大多數人都遭遇過。雪梨歌劇院比原本預估晚了十年才能營運,而且是已經縮減設計規模,只求順利完工。最後建築耗費$102,000,000美元,儘管原本預算只有$7,000,000美元。

Our tendency to fall victim to the planning fallacy comes from having too much optimism. We tend to not plan for hiccups, which inevitably pop up along the way.
讓我們成為規劃謬誤受害者的這種傾向是根源於太過理想化。我們容易在做規劃時不去考慮突發狀況,但其實意外總是無可避免地經常發生。

The secret to overcoming this fallacy is to flip our expectations:
換個方向來進行預測,就是解決這個謬誤的秘密關鍵:

  • Underestimate how much you can get done in a day. 請「低估」你一天能做到多少事。
  • Overestimate how long each task will take. 請「高估」每個任務所需的時間。
  • Overestimate how much you’ll get interrupted during the day. 請「高估」你一天中會被擾亂打斷的情況。

Plan to be interrupted. Plan to spend double the time you think you really need on every task. And plan fewer tasks for your day.
要預計會被擾亂。要預計每個任務都將花費你原本需要用來完工的雙倍時間。並且在一天中安排「更少的」任務。

Professor, author, and productivity expert Cal Newport suggests planning your day backwards starting from home time. Assume you’re going home at 5pm, or 5:30, and plan back from there so your day isn’t more full than you can handle.
教授、作者、也是生產力方面的專家Cal Newport建議,用準備回家的時間「往前倒推」來規劃你的一天。假設你打算在下午五點準備回家,或五點半,那就以這個時間倒推來做計畫,這樣的話你的一天就不會爆滿到無法掌控。

Cal also suggests focusing on doing fewer things, better:
Cal也建議最好專注在更少的任務上、並將其做的更好:

You’re judged on what you do best so if you want to have as much success as possible you’re always better off doing fewer things but doing those things better.
你將根據你的最佳表現被評斷,因此,如果你想盡可能的更成功,最好永遠都做較少的任務,但是將其做的更好。

A shorter task list can actually help you get done, counterintuitive as it sounds. Say you normally plan 10 tasks per day, on average. And most days you get an average of 5 or 6 done.
一個較短的任務清單反而可以真正幫助你將事情都完成,雖然這聽起來似乎與直覺相反。也就是說,當你通常安排每天平均十個任務時,大多數日子中你其實完成了每天平均五到六個。

Now, if you plan just three tasks to do today, it’s likely you’ll get them all done. You’ll also have less opportunity to jump between different tasks when you only have three to choose from, so you may find it easier to focus. And when those three tasks are done, you’ll feel great. You’ll have built enough momentum to get through more than what you’d planned—but you’ll feel good about doing it, because you’ve already met your minimum requirement for the day.
現在,如果你今天只安排「三個任務」,那麼你應該全部都能完成。你也將會更少在不同任務間切換,既然你只有三個可選擇,因此你可能覺得更容易專心。並且,當這三個任務都完成之後,你會感到很棒。於是你將會有充足動力想去處理不在預期內的更多事情 -- 但是你會很愉快的進行,因為你早已達成了今日基本目標。

You may finish 5 or 6 things in a day. Maybe even more. But you won’t go home with an unfinished to-do list anymore. Instead, your list will be completed, it will have bonus tasks added that you got done after 1-3 were finished. That’s a much better feeling to leave with, and you’ll be able to walk out of the office on time, knowing you got your to-do list done well before home time.
可能你這天中完成了五到六件事,或許更多一點。但你將不再會留下未完成的任務清單就回家了。取而代之的是,你已經完成了你的任務清單,並且還額外多完成了一到三件任務。這帶來的感覺好多了,你將會能夠準時走出辦公室,清楚地知道你已經把任務清單在回家之前全部好好完成了。

4. Re-frame the way you think about “leaving work” 重新建構你對「下班」的想法


It can be tough to give yourself the freedom to leave work. You might feel guilty that you’re leaving before others, or that you’re stopping work at all. You might worry that you’re not committed enough if you leave work right on time.
讓你賜與你自己下班的自由,也許是件困難的事。你可能會有罪惡感,因為你比其他人更早離開,或因為你居然停止了奮鬥。你可能擔心準時下班會造成你對工作不夠全力以赴。

This is all perspective, of course. There’s nothing about leaving work on time that affects how hard you work when you’re there, or how good your work actually is.
以上當然都只是個人腦中的想像。 準時下班,其實並不會影響你在工作中的認真程度、或你實際上工作表現的品質。

So how can you overcome this nagging feeling that it’s not okay to leave work on time? By reframing how you think about it.
對於準時下班就是感到不對勁,你要如何克服這種惱人的情緒?重新建構你關於此事的想法吧。

Rather than “I’m leaving work now”, try thinking of it as moving towards something else. For instance:
比起「我現在要下班了」的想法,試著換成「我要去做另一件事」。例如:

  • “I’m going home to spend time with my family now.” 「我現在要回家去陪伴家人。」
  • “I’m going to a school event to support my kids now.” 「我現在要去參與孩子的學校活動。」
  • “I’m going to the gym to keep my body in shape now.” 「我現在要去健身房以保持身材。」
  • “I’m going home to cook now, because it helps me relax and good food helps me stay healthy.” 「我現在要回家進行烹飪,因為這能使我放鬆,而且優質的食物能讓我保持健康。」
  • “I’m going to meet a friend for dinner now, because regular socializing helps me feels connected to others.” 「我現在要去跟朋友吃晚餐,因為規律的社交活動,能幫助我感到與他人有良好聯繫。」
  • “I’m going to get a haircut now, because looking good helps me feel confident.” 「我現在要去剪頭髮,因為美好的外表讓我感到自信。」

Framing your next activity as something important to your life can make it more obvious it’s important that you leave work on time. Looking after your health, staying connected to friends and family, and enjoying your favorite hobbies or relaxing activities all make you a more well-rounded human—which is important to ensuring you produce the best work you can.
策劃你的下一場活動,將其視為人生的重要事務,就能夠更加凸顯你要準時下班的重要性。關心自己的健康狀況、和朋友及家庭保持良好往來、享受嗜好或休閒活動, 以上全都能讓你成為一個更加充實飽滿的人 -- 這就是確保你能在工作上有最佳產出的重要關鍵。 

Whether you’re working enough to be worried about increased health risks, want to spend more time with family, or you just want to develop a more regular work routine, these approaches can help you go home on time every day—and still be happy with what you’ve achieved.
無論你的工作量是否多到有需要擔心健康風險,有需要思考如何花更多時間陪伴家人,或只是想建立比較正常的工作習慣,以上這些方式能幫你每天準時回家 -- 並且仍然愉悅滿足於已達成的工作。

About the author: Belle Beth Cooper is the co-founder of Exist, a personal analytics platform to help you understand your life.
關於作者: Belle Beth Cooper 是Exist的聯合創始人之一, 此為一個讓你更瞭解自己生活的分析平台服務。

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